How to Grow Tomatoes
Tomatoes are the most popular vegetable in home gardens. No other vegetable
comes close to it's popularity. There is nothing better than a ripe tomato
straight out of the garden. Many tomatoes never make it past the garden
fence. It's a joy to take a ripe, juicy fruit from the plant, and eat it while
you are still in your garden.
Growing tomato plants is easy. Most varieties produce an abundance of fruit.
The best tasting tomato, is one that ripens on the vine. With a wide range
of varieties to choose from, there is a tomato plant that's just right for
every home gardener.
Did you know? The world record tomato is 7.76 pounds, grown in1986
by Gordan Graham, Edmond OK. What variety did he use? It was
"Delicious". More on Giant Vegetables
While many people believe that tomato plants originated in Europe, they actually
are native to Central America. Explorers who travelled to the New World,
found the Aztec Indians growing them. These explorers brought tomatoes back
to Europe in the 16th Century. Southern Europe readily accepted them, and
they quickly became popular in Italian cuisine.
Thought for the Day: Knowledge is knowing a tomato is a fruit; Wisdom
is not putting it in a fruit salad.
Learn all about growing Tomatoes:
Tomato plants are members of the nightshade family
Types of Tomato Varieties:
Did you Know? The first reliable tomato variety was cultivated by
Alexander Livingston in the mid 1800's. At the time, they were considered
poisonous. Tomatoes were once prized more as an exotic ornamental, than an
edible vegetable. More on Livingston
There are hundreds of different varieties of tomatoes to choose from. The
varieties of tomatoes can be found in the following groups:
Cherry Tomato-A favorite of kids and adults. These bite-sized tomatoes
are easy to grow, ripen early, and are a perfect snack right in the garden.
Leave a bowl of cherry tomatoes on your kitchen counter, and they disappear
in a hurry. They are used in a variety of ways, including salads, vegetable
trays with dip, and shish-ka-bob. After the gardening season is over, Cherry
Tomatoes all but disappear from the marketplace. Those that remain command
a high price.
Grape Tomato - Small and bite-sized,
like it's cousin the Cherry Tomato, these tasty morsels have gone from unknown
to "the rage" in just a few years. More on Grape
Main Crop- These are the mainstay in home gardens. Main crop varieties
mature from early to mid-season, are big, round, meaty, and prolific producers.
Plum or Roma- Often called paste tomatoes, they are small and plum
or cylindrical in shape. They usually have a pointed bottom. They contain
far less "juice" than other varieties, and are not as sweet. Plum tomatoes
are used to make paste, sauces, canning, and even ketchup.
Beefsteak- Beefsteak tomatoes are the King of the tomato crop. They
grow so big, that one slice covers an entire sandwich! They also have a big,
flavorful taste. Beefsteaks have the longest maturity dates. They are well
worth waiting for.
Long Keepers- This variety is small, usually yellowish orange in color.
They can be stored in a cool, dark place for several months. How long you
ask? My neighbor showed me his leftovers in June from the prior fall. As
he discarded his remaining supply, he culled a few good ones for his evening
Heirloom Varieties - Varieties can be found in most of the types above.
More on Heirloom plants
Much more on Varieties of Tomatoes
Thought for the Day If life deals you lemons, make lemonade. If life
deals you tomatoes, make Bloody Marys.
Starting Tomato Seeds:
Tomato plants are usually started indoors. Planting tomato seeds is an exciting
time. It is one of the very first gardening projects of the year. After a
long winter, you are itching to get your hands back into some "dirt".
Begin starting tomato seeds indoors in small containers, eight to ten weeks
before the last frost date for your area. Sow tomato seeds about 1/8" inch
deep, using seed starting soil. Seeds will sprout in 10-14 days, depending
upon soil temperature. Sprouting tomato seeds is quicker and more productive,
when using a heated germination mat.
As soon as the seedlings emerge, they need full sunlight to grow sturdy.
Lack of sunlight causes the plants to grow "leggy". Use grow lights to supplement
the amount of available sunlight.
Tip: To help your plants grow sturdy, place a small fan on low nearby.
Or, lightly brush the tops of the plants with your hands a couple times each
How to Grow Tomatoes:
Growing tomato plants is easy. It's one reason for their popularity in your
home garden. Just prior to planting tomato plants in your garden, "harden
them off" by bringing them outside during the daytime and for increasing
hours, until you are leaving them out overnight. Use of a cold frame is
recommended, but not a requirement. If frost is predicted, bring them indoors.
On planting day, pour liberal amounts of water with a soluble liquid fertilizer
on them. Plant them in the garden carefully. To minimize transplant shock,
avoid disturbing the roots. Normal spacing is 24 " apart, in rows 30" to
Fertilize plants on a regular basis. Early applications should be high in
nitrogen. As blossoming occurs, switch to fertilizers which are higher in
Phosphorus and Potassium. Too much Nitrogen fertilizer results in lots of
lush green leaves, and little fruit. A fertilizer specifically formulated
for tomatoes, will help to maximize your crop.
Keep your tomato plant well watered. Deep watering is preferable, over more
frequent, light watering. You want moisture to go deep to all the roots of
the plant. Water directly to the roots. Keep water off the leaves if at all
possible. Tomatoes are susceptible to plant disease that grows in wet, humid
Tip: Find a place along the back of the house for just one tomato
plant. This one plant will be the last to succumb to frost in the fall. The
warmth of the house, and a light plastic sheet or cloth tossed over it at
night, will allow you to harvest fresh tomatoes after the first frost, right
when prices are rising in the grocery store.
Tomato Cages and Staking - Maximize your crop, and minimize disease
and insect damage, by staking or caging tomato plants. They will reward you
with more tomatoes. The fruit will be cleaner, as they will not be sitting
on the soil.
More on staking tomatoes.
Cold and hot spells will affect fruit development and growth. Fruit set will
not occur below 55 degrees or above 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Days to Harvest / Maturity:
Cherry Tomatoes: 65 - 75 days
Regular Tomatoes: 70 - 85 days
Days to harvest (or maturity) is counted from the time tomato plants are
set out into the garden. The range is broad, as there are many varieties.
Generally, cherry tomatoes ripen first, followed by early varieties. Beefsteak
tomatoes require the longest days to maturity.
The race is always on in my neighborhood to get the first ripe tomato of
the season. Most of us also grow and await the beefsteaks. One slice from
these delicious beauties more than fills a sandwich.
Insects and Pests:
Tomato plants can experience insect problems with tomato hornworms, cutworms,
and a few other garden pests. Also, if not staked or caged, snails and slugs
will munch on the ripening fruit.
Birds will occasionally peck holes in red fruit.
Did you Know? Tomato plants emit a mild toxin that discourages many
small insects from bothering them. This toxin can also cause skin itching
About Tomato Hornworms
More on Tomato Plant Problems
Tip: Borage plants can be
used as companion plants, to deter Tomato
Did you Know? Tomato plants (not the fruit) are used to make an organic
insect repellent. See Tomato "Juice" Spray
Diseases of Tomatoes:
A number of plant problems can arise, usually in mid summer heat and humidity.
Blights and fungus infections can occur in the high humidity. Early treatment
with fungicides is effective. Spacing plants too close cuts down air circulation
and promotes disease.
Blossom end rot can also affect the fruit. This is a round, brown, indented
spot on the bottom of the tomato. It is caused by either uneven watering
or a lack of calcium in the soil.
More on Blossom
Tip: Do not water at night if possible in hot and humid weather if
possible. Moisture and humidity combined with high temperatures promotes
plant diseases. If possible, water at the roots.
More on Tomato plant disease
Tomatoes like it hot! They will die if exposed to frost. Make sure to plant
them after the last frost.
Tip#1: Cover your young seedling if frost is predicted. A simple and
easy cover for small seedlings is to buy large or extra large plastic
disposable cups. Place them over the seedling at dusk, and remove them in
the morning. There is usually little or no wind on nights with frost, so
they are not easily tipped over.
Tip#2: If you get a light frost overnight and you did not cover up
your plants. Go out early before the sun rises, and spray your plants with
the garden hose. This melts the ice off the plants and may save them.
Harvesting and Storing Tomatoes:
Tomatoes store well in a cool, dry location. Do not put them in the refrigerator.
While they last longer in the refrigerator, they will lose their flavor and
texture. Keep them out of direct sunlight.
Just before frost, pick tomatoes while the are still green or orange. Wash
them thoroughly. Rinse in a light solution of 1 gallon of water and a tablespoon
of bleach. This kills off bacteria that rots the fruit. Allow them to dry,
then put them in a cool, dry, dark place.
To ripen tomatoes indoors, bring a couple at a time to a warm, sunny window.
Tomato Canning Guidelines - Information
on canning tomatoes and other vegetables.
Are tomatoes a fruit or a vegetable? It's a frequently asked
question. While we all grow tomatoes in our vegetable garden, they are actually
classified as a fruit. The U.S. Congress debated this in 1893.
Garden Tomato Recipes: May we suggest:
When making large amounts of juice or sauce, you will need a tomato strainer
and sauce maker, to easily remove seeds and skin.
On the Light Side: See Tomato Trivia
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